Approaches for Stimulating and Responding to Demand for Sub-projects benefiting OVC
In deciding which parts of the country to target with the CDD program, prioritize areas with high rates of OVC and/or HIV/AIDS (since HIV/AIDS produces OVC). (See also section on targeting
In countries with a high prevalence of OVC, consider earmarking funds to benefit them. For example, in post-conflict countries and countries with high HIV/AIDS rates, funds could be earmarked for orphans (regardless of the cause of parents’ death) or children affected by HIV/AIDS.
Include a component to fund assistance for vulnerable groups, including OVC. This component may require separate procedures, such as allowing for eligibility of sub-projects proposed not by beneficiaries themselves but by groups representing their interests (e.g., NGOs working with disabled people).
Guided Needs Assessments
- During the participatory needs assessment and planning process, include separate focus groups made up of OVC (for guidance in how to consult with children see the section on Consulting with Children) and/or OVC caretakers. These consultations may be part of a wider effort to understand the needs of other vulnerable groups at the community level, such as people living with a disability and elderly people and their caretakers. Ensure that all project staff and staff of executing agencies who will be involved in the needs assessment are familiar with OVC issues and trained in helping communities consider them. Often communities will focus on infrastructure as a solution to their problems because they have not been appropriately guided in analyzing their situation and identifying the range of possible solutions (see problem tree exercise as an example for analyzing situations and finding solutions)
Local targeting and incentives
- Once the special needs of OVC are understood, both from the perspective of the children themselves as well as from that of their caretakers, consider special measures to ensure that their priority sub-projects are selected for financing. This might include earmarking funds at the community or municipal level for this type of sub-project or giving OVC sub-projects bonus points in the sub-project review and prioritization process.
- Give a community that designs a sub-project benefiting OVC additional funding allowing it to finance a second sub-project serving the entire community. This will help eliminate the disincentive to presenting a sub-project serving OVC, when the community as a whole has other priorities.
- Require that community sub-projects include a plan to ensure that all members of the community can benefit from them, hence encouraging consideration and inclusion of OVC and other vulnerable groups (e.g., schools should be affordable to even the poorest children and accessible to children living with a disability).
Analyze all OVC related needs identified in communities throughout the municipality and identify
needed initiatives that are too expensive to implement in every community, but htat could be affordable at the municipal level,
municipal-level programs that could be developed jointly, such as community-based rehabilitation programs
for children living with a disability.
- The same might be done across municipalities to identify national level interventions that may be necessary to respond to common OVC needs that cannot be addressed at the local level (e.g., conditional cash transfers to help finance school fees for OVC). While a CDD project would not be able to finance these interventions, they should be brought to the attention of the relevant government agencies.
Other Design Features
- Hire one or more staff with background especially appropriate for OVC interventions (experience in community-based rehabilitation programs may be particularly precious).
- Adapt the MIS (management information system) to track interventions focused on OVC and the inclusion of OVC in community-wide interventions. The latter will require monitoring ex-ante measures, such as the accessibility of newly built or rehabilitated infrastructure, as well as outcomes, such as OVC school attendance.
- Promote the formation of peer support groups of OVC caretakers (with a special focus on child headed households and elderly caretakers) to share their common concerns, help each other find solutions, and amplify their voice locally and nationally to advocate for needed support.
- Promote the formation of networks of NGOs and other civil society organizations to engage in regional or national activities, such as capacity building for community organizations serving OVC, communication campaigns to protect the rights of OVC, and advocacy for policies and
laws that benefit and protect OVC.
- Include a requirement that all beneficiary communities receive training on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention, and include a session on orphans and other children affected by HIV/AIDS.
- When providing capacity building to NGOs and CBOs, include sessions on how to work on OVC issues.