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ØMulti-sector demand driven (CDD)
ØMulti-country HIV/AIDS (MAP)
ØPost-conflict projects
ØEarly child development (ECD)
Recommended Reading:

Child Needs Asessment Toolkit

The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS

OVC Programme Effort Index - Draft Report

The Cost-Effectiveness of Six Models of Care for Orphan and Vulnerable Children in South Africa

Reaching Out to Africa’s Orphans: A Framework for Public Action Executive summary.

Education and HIV/AIDS - ensuring education access for orphans and vulnerable children : a training module [NB! Heavy!]

Education and HIV/AIDS: A Window of Hope [NB! Heavy!]

Investing in our Future, Psycho Social Support for Children Affected by HIV/AIDS

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  Multi-Country HIV/AIDS


Overview of Possible Interventions

Multi-country HIV/AIDS Programs (MAPs) have the potential to reach all categories of OVC and to finance a wide range of preventive and coping interventions. These programs should be mandated to earmark funds to benefit orphans (regardless of the cause of parents’ death) and children affected by HIV/AIDS.

MAPs usually include three project components:

  • a capacity-building component to prepare government and civil society organizations to implement a wide range of HIV/AIDS activities;

  • investments to expand the public service response to HIV/AIDS in a broad range of sectors, with particular attention to strengthening health systems;

  • grant financing to communities and civil society organizations for local HIV/AIDS initiatives.

Support for OVC has traditionally come out of the third grant-financing component of a MAP, but based upon the weaknesses detected by the results of the OVC Program Effort Index, capacity-building of government is critical to improving the quality and effectiveness of data gathering, action planning, legal protection, and M&E. In designing the details of the capacity building component, task managers should be sure to include activities to assist government to improve their performance in these areas.

Most of the possible interventions outlined below would either be part of public service responses to HIV/AIDS, or come out of the demand-driven process used to allocate grant resources to civil society organizations (NGOs, faith-based organizations, associations, etc.) and communities to support families and their communities to continue to provide care for and protect OVC.

Those interventions included in burgundy are those prioritized by The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV/AIDS, a document prepared by a global network of agencies led by UNICEF and UNAIDS.

OVC Category

Most Likely Project Design Features – MAP Projects


  • Support HIV/AIDS prevention programs in schools.
  • Organize youth groups that use drama and music to encourage HIV prevention and compassion for people living with AIDS.
  • Invest in training new teachers to keep up with the high rate at which teachers are dying in most affected countries
  • Set up school feeding programs targeting the most vulnerable children.
  • Offer conditional cash transfers to assist OVC to stay in school and stay up-to-date with well-child primary health care schedules.
  • Develop community gardens to assist vulnerable households.

Project Design Features by OVC Category

Street Children

  • Offer street-based HIV/AIDS prevention services.
  • Offer shelter/nightly protection to children at particular risk.
  • Support family tracing and reunification efforts.


  • Promote community-based models of care for orphans that meet minimum standards of care.
  • Support residential care as a last resort for HIV infected children who are difficult to place in other care settings.
  • Offer free or subsidized health services (possibly including caretakers).
  • Develop simple protocol to diagnose psycho-social problems as part of routine health assessment, offer follow-up services and train primary care health providers in applying it.
  • Develop materials and train teachers to identify and provide psycho-social care to orphans.
  • Develop materials and train public health and social affairs officials to provide outreach services to children heads of households to enhance their ability to keep their siblings healthy (e.g., education on nutrition, hygiene, and immunizations).
  • Assist de-facto orphan heads of households over 16 to improve household revenue (through job placements, inputs for agricultural and pastoral activities).
  • Direct cash or in-kind transfers to orphan heads of households, elderly care-takers, extended family care-takers, or foster families.
  • Develop a network of home visitors to provide assistance to orphan-headed households, extended family care-takers, and foster families (volunteers or paid social workers).
  • Assist caretakers in communities to organize groups where they share responsibility for the children allowing each other occasional periods of respite.
  • Support communities to offer structured recreation, art, cultural, and sports activities that help orphans to become more socially connected.
  • Make necessary changes to laws to protect inheritance rights of orphans and ensure laws are enforced.
  • Supply free legal education and assistance to orphans and their caretakers.

HIV/AIDS affected children

  • All of the above.
  • Offer appropriate preventive and curative care to parents or guardians in order to extend their lives, thus avoiding or postponing orphanhood.
  • Ensure that HIV positive mothers have access to ARV regimes when feasible to decrease the chance that the newborn will develop AIDS.
  • Modify school curriculum to cover prevention, care of the sick, de-stigmatizing, etc.
  • Develop guidelines and training materials for teachers to help them identify grief-related behavior among their students and offer appropriate support (including referral to existing support programs).
  • Develop psycho-social support program for children living in HIV-affected households.
  • Involve older children and adolescents as “part of the solution”.
  • Develop training program in appropriate care for AIDS patients, including prevention of transmission.
  • Ensure that HIV positive orphans are placed in a care setting where they can receive adequate medical attention.
  • Ensure that HIV positive children receive preventive therapy against common opportunistic infections.
  • Develop network of home visitors to provide assistance to affected families (volunteers or paid social workers).
  • Implement information and communication campaigns designed to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS to children (eliminate misconceptions such as “sex with a virgin cures AIDS”) and to fight stigma.
  • Assist infected parents to prepare a memory box to help surviving children have a sense of family history.
  • Assist infected parents to prepare a will and plan for their children’s future, identifying who will become their guardian. When possible, siblings should be kept together.

Children in the worst forms of child labor

  • Include non-regular communities like mining sites and quarries in information campaigns and protection strategies. Many children live and work in this type of male dominated work places where normal community protection mechanisms are not in place, and sexual abuse is commonplace.
  • Child domestic servants are at a particularly high risk for sexual abuse and unsupervised early sexual debut, and both they and their employing households should be targeted by information and special protection initiatives.

Children living with a disability

  • Ensure their inclusion in HIV/AIDS prevention activities, given their vulnerability to sexual abuse. (E.g. blind children cannot read/see information posters, deaf children cannot hear radio messaging or town criers).
  • In certain areas it is believed that individuals with intellectual disabilities have special (divine) powers, and they are at heightened risk for (assumingly curative) sexual approaches. In others, sexual intercourse with an individual with an intellectual disability represents challenging a taboo, also believed to be very powerful in witchcraft ceremonies. In these areas, special protective measurements should be considered for children with intellectual disabilities.
  • Ensure that any infrastructure built with MAP funds is accessible to disabled people.


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