1. What is Gender Training?
People in virtually all countries share gender-differentiated roles and responsibilities both in the private and public spheres. These roles reflect varying societal values, attitudes, knowledge and national, regional, and/or local/community realities. However, many client countries are concerned with the unequal economic and social development opportunities and status between men and women. The disparities significantly affect women’s risk of poverty. Often ensuing poverty further exacerbates gender inequities and exposes women to levels of discrimination and poverty not faced by their male counterparts. In communities where social and economic roles and the division of labor are gender-biased, even meticulously planned interventions, if gender-blind, can be affected in unanticipated and adverse ways.
Gender training aims to develop gender awareness among stakeholders involved in development policy, planning and implementation. It helps development policy makers, planners and implementation staff understand the differential impact on men and women of development interventions and increases the staff’s knowledge of the different needs and preferences that men and women have. Gender training aims to increase the awareness among participants that addressing gender issues in policy formulation, program/project design and implementation can increase development effectiveness.
2. What is the Purpose of the Manual?
The objective of this training manual is to provide a standard package of training materials on the basic concepts of gender analysis and gender planning for development practitioners. The training should equip such participants with introductory knowledge and tools that will enable them to recognize potential gender issues and to begin to determine how they should be addressed throughout their work. In turn, this should improve gender-responsive, result-oriented policies and operations.
This manual provides instructors with all pedagogical materials to organize a two-day training course in gender mainstreaming. This manual focuses only on the basics of integrating gender into development interventions. More specialized modules, such as gender and trade, gender and public policy, gender and decentralization, and gender and infrastructure are being made available in the WBI Gender Storehouse.
Although basic, the course needs to be delivered by an instructor who has some expertise in gender and development issues. The instructor can adapt the course to suit the needs of participant groups by selecting different learning exercises for group discussion. For example, if an instructor trains a group of education specialists in Africa, then he or she should choose to review general case studies, some tailored to the education sector and some tailored to the African context.
3. What Does the Manual Include?
|Box 1. Objectives of the Four Training Modules
Module I defines and introduces the basic concepts of gender.
Module II aims to introduce participants to gender mainstreaming and discusses gender analysis in detail.
Module III aims to inform participants on how to integrate gender issues into their work.
Module IV aims to provide information to the participants on monitoring and evaluation.
The manual provides materials and instructions for trainers to deliver training in four gender-related areas. It consists of four modules (see Box 1): (i) Introduction to Gender, (ii) Introduction to Gender Mainstreaming and Analysis, (iii) Integrating Gender into Development Projects and (iv) Gender in Monitoring and Evaluation.
Each module is divided into three sets of documents. The first is a set of slides outlining the session. The second consists of an accompanying set of instructions for the trainer, which provides background notes and detailed descriptions of each slide. Together, these documents provide key information that the instructor should discuss in presenting the slides. The slides, in landscape page format, can be used as a PowerPoint presentation; or, they can be printed separately and used as overhead transparencies.
Each module also includes a set of exercises that the instructor may use to enhance learning and communicate key points. There are three types of exercises: Group Exercises may be used during the class to illustrate key points and to instigate debate and discussion on more complex concepts and processes. Learning Cases and Case Studies are expected to be discussed in smaller groups to allow greater participation and expression of individual views. A Learning Case merely illustrates key points and helps participants to develop skill and understanding and can be undertaken in a shorter period of time, approximately 15-20 minutes. Case Studies are an exploration of a case over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context, and can take anywhere between 30-60 minutes. Participants should be handed the Case Studies well in advance of the module, or given time to read each case. A spreadsheet, in Volume 2, lists Learning Cases (LC) and Case Studies (CS). Each is rated from a level of 1 to 3: Beginner (1), Intermediate (2) and Advanced (3). This provides the trainer with flexibility to sort and select exercises responsive to participant needs.
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4. What Are the Suggestions for Delivery?
The discussion notes serve more as an interactive guide to engage participants, and not merely as lecture notes. Therefore, instructors using these modules must be well acquainted with the sections (Contents and Time Required) prior to training. By reviewing the sections in advance, the instructor can make decisions concerning which materials to use according to the participants’ knowledge or experience.
Instructors will need a flip chart, markers and Post-It notes to conduct group exercises. Participants will need paper, pens or pencils to complete the Learning Cases and Case Studies.
To encourage participation and discussion among the participants, the room should be set up in a manner in which all participants can see each other and the instructor. The course allows instructors to train a group of no more than 25 people. This interactive course gives participants time to work actively on exercises, reflect on the topic and network with other participants.
The course can be delivered over a period of two to four full days, with each module being covered in a half-day or a full-day. Utilizing only Learning Cases would shorten the duration of the course; including Case Studies would extend the duration. Each half-day session should include a 20-minute break for refreshments and networking. In addition, a full-day session should include a 90-minute lunch break session. A sample agenda of a workshop undertaken for Kenyan university student leaders is provided in Annex 1. This workshop was conducted by WBI over a period of three days and the organizer integrated a special half-day module on “Gender Issues in Kenya” in order to increase the relevance of the training for this set of young participants.
Each training session should begin with introductions. An introduction by the trainer and the resource person(s) should be followed by a self-introduction by each participant. Participants should be asked to mention their names, the reason for their interest in gender, their current professions and their expectations from the course. The trainer should listen carefully and contain expectations, if found to be unrealistic. Ten to 15 minutes at the end of each session should be devoted to closing down. This should involve discussion on whether participant expectations were met. Ask a few people to speak on what worked well in the workshop and what could be strengthened. In addition, ask them to fill out an evaluation form, providing specific comments on how things can be improved. A sample of WBI’s Level 1 evaluation form is provided in Annex 2.
The instructor should be keenly aware that gender issues vary and are different across space, time and communities. In addition, gender is not always perceived as an economic issue, but as a political, social, or religious issue. This can lead to charged emotions and hardening of positions because, often, participants will reflect different personal experiences and beliefs. A successful trainer should ensure that all participants are comfortable to express their views, as well as encourage and facilitate open, respectful, and honest discussion without taking sides. Such discussion is the first step to effective learning.